Wednesday, 27 August 2014

Training Needs Analysis

Simple Six Steps for Training Needs Analysis 

Training needs analysis is the process by which the instructional needs of the organisation are identified and interpreted prior to the training delivery.  
STEP 1: Organizational analysis 
·Organizational goals and objectives
·Work force measurements
o   Analysis of labour turnover, 
o   Age profiles and expected retirements, etc.
o   Skills inventories
o   Measurements of organisational climate and industrial disputes
o   Labour turnover
o   Absenteeism
o   Productivity
o   Accident rates, etc.
·Measurements of efficiency:
o   Labour costs
o   Material costs 
o   Product quality
o   Downtime
o   Waste 

STEP 2: Operational analysis
The focus of this level of analysis is on a job or group of jobs. Organizations routinely undertake this sort of activity for reasons other than training.
·Job evaluation and organisation design:
o   Organisational Structure
o   Job Descriptions
o   Job Specifications
o   Performance Standards and KPIs
STEP 3: Individual analysis
This level of analysis is focused on measuring how well the incumbent is performing the job under review. These include the review of: 
·Performance appraisal data
·Job observation
·Job tests
·Critical incidents
·Attitudes surveys 
STEP 4: Occupational analysis
This level of analysis is measured by evaluating the competency of the individual mapped with his roles and responsibilities assigned to the resource with respect to his job efficiency and effectiveness. These include the review of: 
·         Job Competencies
o   Surface or refractory competency:
·Interpersonal skills
·Problem solving
·Communication skills
o   Conventional competency
STEP 5: Analyse the result
Based on the above analysis, the list of desired outcome need to be prepared. This may include the following:
· List down all the organizational constraints and assumptions
§  Budget
§  Time
§  Training material
§  Trainer
§  Attitude of participants
· Desired behavior required
· Desired level of Knowledge, Skill and Attitude required by each level and position
STEP 6: Define the learning outcomes
After analyzing the results and keeping the organizational constraints in mind, the training plan is outlined which necessarily covers:
  • Lessons and topic areas required to be covered for different types of trainees
  • Total time required for training
  • Learning Objectives
  • Training methodology
  • Allocation of time for each set of lecture and activities
  • Types of assessment suitable for the defined learning objectives
  • Kind of training material required
  • Kind of trainer required

Thursday, 6 June 2013

Instructional technologies with schools of thought

We need to first understand the following five adult learning orientations or schools has proponents who define the principles of instructional design for that theory and identify forms of evaluation (assessment of whether learning has occurred):

1. Cognitivist (Cg): It focuses on how humans learn using internal processes of acquiring, understanding, and retaining knowledge. Cognitivists believe that learning occurs when humans reorganize experiences, making sense of input from the environment.
2. Behaviourist (B): They concentrate on learning through control of the external environment. Their emphasis is on changing behavior through processes such as operant conditioning and positive reinforcement.
3. Humanist (H): They believe that learning must be geared to the development of the whole person; they place emphasis on learner motivation, attitudes, perceptions, and values. Members of this school embrace self-directed learning.
4. Social /collaborative (S): It focuses on the social context in which people learn, focusing on how they learn through interacting with and observing other people.

5. Constructivist (Cn): They stresses that the learner rather than the teacher develops knowledge and asserts that creating opportunities for knowledge construction by the learner eclipses any direct instruction provided by a teacher. Constructivism is best suited to content that is fluid and flexible, with no “right” answer.

Example of Instructional technology:

1. Classroom learning: Cg, B

2. Computer Based Training(CBT): Cg, B

3. Threaded Discussion: Cg, H, S, Cn

4. Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS): Cg, Cn

5. Learning Content Management System (LCMS): Cg, B, H, S, Cn

6. Synchronous communication through Chat, texting: Cg

7. PPT and Video as training material: B

8. CD/DVD ROM/ Mobile learning (Palm held devices): B

9. Audio (postcad): B

10. Video files: B

11. Instructor and student networked computer: H, Cn

12. Simulation: Cn

Wednesday, 5 June 2013

Why continuous process of mentoring required within organisation?

1. Upgrade knowledge and skill of employee.

2. Nurture leadership talent.

3. Attract and retain high performers.

4. Promote diversity of thought and style.

5. Develop a line of succession.

6. Preserve institutional memory.

7. Inculcate the sense of inclusion.

8. Foster a collaborative environment.

9. Ease the transition to new assignments.

10. Strengthen the competitive advantage of organisation.

Monday, 3 June 2013

Human Development Interventions @ Workplace

Human Resource Management team may use one of the following interventions from the given below list to overall effectiveness and efficiency of resources at the workplace:

1. Job Redesign: This can be achieved by observation, in-depth study of discrepancies between what assigned and his interest level, modification of job elements and responsibilities, hence amendments in the job description and finally reshuffling tasks and duties.

2. Job Enlargement: Adding responsibilities without altering the challenges, that is horizontal loading with new responsibilities and duties which makes the employee more motivated. It gives more satisfaction for being responsible for greater freedom.

3. Job Enrichment: Additional responsibilities are given to en employee followed by change in scope and challenges as work. This is vertical loading mechanism by which responsibilities of versatile nature is assigned to the employee.

4. Job Rotation: Employees are shifted from one function/ division/ department to another based on his competencies and career succession to give him better insight of the operations and organizational set-up for a defined period.

5. Career Counseling: This helps to recognize the root cause of dissatisfaction, failure to achieve targets assigned and achieve desired results, mapping employee competency with respect to organisation’s operating systems, internal and external dynamics. This also helps to overcome ole and work stress of employees.

6. Training: Providing regular training whether on-the-job, in-house or external training programme to the resources to equip them with new skill and expertise required accomplishing the desired expectations of the organization.

7. Suggestion schemes: Providing an environment where employees are encouraged to come forward with their open and frank suggestion / ideas / feedback for the overall growth, efficiency and effectiveness of the organization, division, department, team, etc.

8. HR Survey: HR should regularly conduct surveys such as job satisfaction survey, culture / climate survey, employee engagement survey, etc to enhance the moral and motivation of resources.

9. HR Audit: It is comprehensive evaluation of human resource development strategies, structure, systems, styles and skills in the context of the short term and long term business plan of organization. This gives insight and direction for further human development requirements.

Saturday, 8 October 2011

Emerging roles of HR professionals

Key HR Role:
• Human capital developer;
• Strategic partner;
• Functional expert;
• Employee advocate;
• HR leader.

Other Responsibilities:
• Recruitment, working with the business and providers to find the right quality of staff, attracting Talent;
• Induction, Engaging, Retaining Staff;
• Ongoing Performance Management;
• Ongoing Succession Planning;
• Development and Assessment centres;
• Brokering Training, Learning and Development solutions, including blended learning;
• Employee R, Remuneration and Benefits, Pensions, Community Investment;
• Acting as an internal Consultant

Categorization of Competencies

Level – 1 – Graduate Trainees / Fresher / New Entrants
Level – 2 – Junior Management
Level – 3 – Middle Management / Senior Management
Level – 4 – Top Management



1. Functional Knowledge - Sound fundamental concepts and good academic record.
2. Statistical Mindset - Identify and diagnose key issues, seek relevant information, draw accurate conclusions / inferences in order to find the appropriate solution.
3. Self Motivated - Is committed, resilient and energetic and has a clear sense of what needs to be done
4. Optimism - Enthusiastic in accepting new initiatives / challenges and demonstrates a feeling of optimism and energy.
5. Interpersonal Skills - Involves other, team mate, shares information and ideas and seeks to resolve conflicts.
6. Adaptability - Accepts change willingly and changes accordingly.
7. Kaizen – Can think, think, think of innovative (think out of box), multiple options.


1. Managing Self – Personally organized and systematic, optimizes resource allocation, anticipates resistances, work scheduling to achieve the targets/goals.
2. Systematic Problem Solving Skills – Overcomes problems and obstacles through systematic analysis and balanced decision- making. Seeks all relevant information and finds the optimal solution.
3. Team Mate - Understands other people and relates effectively to them. Shares information and ideas and seeks to resolve conflicts.
4. Action Oriented - Assumes ownership and responsibility for his job confidently.
5. Flexibility - Is open and adaptable. Looks at situations creatively and moulds accordingly.


1. Networking and Concluding - Interacts, liaises and builds relationships with diversified communities both internal and external to the organisation.
2. Personal Touch Shows genuine concern and respect and are sensitive to employees’ needs. Is committed to supporting and protecting staff.
3. Development of Subordinates - Analyses ongoing feedback from employees and development and helps team to realise its full potential through appropriate involvements.
4. Improvement Orientation – Combination of knowledge and skills and is proactive in ensuring the implementation of new and better ways of achieving desired objectives.
Ensures that learning is shared and that quality is maintained and improved upon.
5. Integrity - completely internalizes the organizations focus of doing business and acts as a role model inspiring others and sets example.
6. Specialized Competence – Sound fundamental, technical and operational issues. Updated on research oriented New Product Development
7. Influencing & Persuading – Clearly communicates ideas and views across the team. Establishes credibility, gains acceptance and converts resistance to acceptance.


1. Business Vision
2. Has a complete overview of the operation and business area. Understands the specific operational components and diverse functional responsibilities and ensures their smooth integration with a long term vision
3. Work Process Orientation – Plans for effective utilization of resources, optimizes the workflow and ensures effective integration and alignment with other related processes.
Sets goals and objectives, monitors progress and responds rapidly when required
4. Influencing - Is able to impact upon, gain the acceptance of, and effect behavior changes in individuals, groups and large audiences
5. People Management Seeks to improve and optimize man-management processes and the working environment.
6. Leadership by Example - Motivates, inspires, influences and pushes people to attain organizational and project goals. Leads by example and delegates effectively
7. Organization Development Orientation - Initiates and supports a continuous process of increasing the skill base and systems and process improvement, effective recruiting skills, reward and development.
8. Reliability - Does whatever he/she believes to be right in spite of pressures to the contrary.


1. Adaptability (Instances where individual had changed his/her behavior to meet other's expectations)
2. Communication (Confidence, Clarity and fluency in expression)
3. Customer Service Orientation (Understands Client Needs and Goes to reasonable lengths to uphold commitments to customers)
4. Functional Knowledge (Partially understands, synthesizes and applies technical information related to own area)
5. Planning & Execution (Has a basic understanding of project cycles, time frames and sequencing issues)
6. Improvement Orientation (generated innovative idea for the benefit of the organization)
7. Positive Attitude (Is reasonably involved in seeing through the task completion)

Competencies Characteristics

Five types of competency characteristics
1. Motives : Self development focuses on client success, preserve firm/personal Integrity (Drive, direct or select behaviour towards certain action or goals)
2. Traits : Learns quickly, projects self-confidence, team player, handles ambiguities well, demonstrates initiatives
(Physical characteristics and consistent response to situation or information)
3. Self-concepts : Person’s attitude, values or self-image
4. Skills : Communicates well, demonstrates leadership (Ability to perform certain physical or mental task)
5. Knowledge : Job related (Information a person has in certain specific area)

Sunday, 21 March 2010

Animated Business Concepts | Simplified Learning | Accounting, Statistics, Economics, Finance

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